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Definition of Culture according to Geert Hofstede 3. Dimensions of Culture according to Geert Hofstede 3.

Masculinity versus Femininity 3. Power Distance 3. Uncertainty Avoidance. Soft Skills 4. Definition of Soft Skills 4. Kind of Soft Skills 4. Social Competencies 4. Methodological Competencies 4. Personal Competencies. Analyzing the Japanese and German working environment 5. General Overview about Culture in Japan and Germany 5. Masculinity versus Femininity 5. Power Distance 5. Uncertainty Avoidance 5. Critical Acclaim. Social Competencies 6. Methodological Competencies 6. Personal Competencies 6.

Analyzes of upcoming Conflicts and possible Approaches for Solution 7. Examples of Conflicts, its Reasons and Form of Appearance 7.

1 Introduction

Important Soft Skills to work successfully with Japanese team members 7. Over the years soft skills become more important when dealing with humans. Those skills will not only be considered by employers in the selection process of a new employee, but are also crucial when trying to successfully accomplish an International Project. The success of a project depends on the cooperation of the project team. Already in national projects misunderstanding and conflicts arise.

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In international teams this danger is bigger due to cultural differences, which — besides of big distances and different time zones - bear different patterns of thinking and acting, languages, norms and values. An example is a telephone conference between a German and a Japanese staff. The German is informing that he is still waiting for the figures of the last quarter and asking when he will receive them. The Japanese is answering that it will be a little bit difficult.

The German is telling that he can understand his situation and points out that he requires the figures by end of this week. The Japanese is answering that he will try. The conclusion of this communication is that the German cannot understand that the Japanese is not able to supply the figures. He feels to be taken not seriously. On the other hand the Japanese cannot understand that the German does not understand that he is not able to supply the requested figures. He feels stalemate and under pressure. That is a typical example of a German-Japanese communication error - the direct versus the indirect communication stile.

In German we tend to hear what indeed has been said. Difficult means difficult and is solvable, if you are only willing.

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In Japan difficult can eventually means difficult, but in the most cases it means infeasible. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how culture has an influence on the success of International Projects and how soft skills can avoid and solve resulting problems exemplified on Japanese and German projects. Subsequent to this introduction an overview of International Projects will be given, while explaining the term and phases of International Projects. Furthermore the term culture and the dimensions of culture according to Geert Hofstede - especially the cultural dimensions masculinity versus femininity, power distance and uncertainty avoidance - will be defined in chapter three.

The term soft skills and the generic competence areas will be explained in chapter four. In chapter five an overview of the German and Japanese culture in reference to the working environment and cooperate culture will be provided. Besides this overall description, a closer look of the used soft skills while working in German or Japanese project team will be given in chapter six.

In chapter seven some upraising conflicts will be shown, examples of reasons and appearance will also be provided as well as possible solution for Germans to work successfully in a Japanese project team.

1 Introduction

Concluding, a final outlook and some hinds to future developments of cultural background, behaviour due to globalization are made. Over the last decades the number of international projects rises due to increasing internationalization of businesses and globalization of markets. Internationally operating companies have to adapt to the continuous changes of the global environment in order to have a competitive advantage and to remain successful in the long-term.

This can be ensured through the execution of international projects. An international project differs from the usual day-to-day biz. It is characterized by defined objectives, time, resources and budget restrictions, interdisciplinary cooperation, project- specific organization, relates to changes, is nonrecurring and something new [1].

The international project phases are divided into four steps. The third step is the project realization and project controlling, which finally will be followed by the project closing.

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It serves for the preparation of the subsequent project planning phase. Following four steps belong to this phase.

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This stage begins with the project idea generation. The project idea arises due to a new idea, e. It can be an internal project, e. A feasibility study examines, if the project idea can be realized within a project. Additionally a project risk analysis will be executed and shows, if the risks, which the project involves, are manageable. Lastly a cost-effectiveness analysis will be made, which demonstrates, if the costs are in appropriate proportions to the gains. After positive results of all those studies and analysis, the next step is to clearly and fully define the project objective in order to be able to make a first rough planning.

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The definition of the project objective is an important point as it has a precision, orientation, motivation and controlling function. The project objective must be defined clearly and comprehensible, it must be reachable and measurable. It involves the nomination of the project leader and project members. Last but not least the project process will be defined in consideration of a roughly time, costs and resource planning. Concluding everything mentioned above will be summarized in a project order, which will be signed by the project leader and the principal. Mistakes made in this phase will have consequences to the remaining steps and will lead to the failure of the project.

It begins with the work breakdown structure, which reduces the complexity and allows an overall overview of the whole project activities, which have to be done, thus to reach the project objective. This structure is the foundation pillar for a target-oriented development and the basis for the further planning steps. After the definition of the WBS the timely and logically sequence as well the dependency for each work package will be determined.

This can be done via a network diagram. Lastly the man-days as well as the project costs for each work package will be estimated based on experiences made in former projects. In order to have the entire control over the international project and to avoid that something unforeseen will endanger the success of the project a risk analysis will made.

There exist two kind of risks, which can occur during the project process, e. This analysis can be done via the usage of the work breakdown structure and serves to create an additional emergency plan. The project realization is the most important project phase, which will be accompanied by the project controlling. In this phase the project in terms of the project planning will be realized and the project development will permanently be monitored and controlled via a target-performance comparison. The target-performance comparison refers to the schedule review, which can be made via a network and milestone trend analysis.

It also applies to the man-days, resources and costs, which can be made via timesheets, accounting control and contract value recording.